###### Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracerby Friedrich A. Lohmüller     Model Railroading / Railway Modelling with POV-Ray -
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- POV-Ray Tutorial

Railway Modelling
with POV-Ray
Index of Content

- Rail Track System
for POV-Ray
Basic Track Elements
- Straight & Curved
- Switches
- Wye + 3Ways
- Level Junctions

- Simplified Using by
RT_System_00.inc
- Rail Tracks Elements
with RT_System_00.inc

- Track Layout with
Model Scaled Tracks
- H0 Scale Tracks
- N Scale Tracks
- Z Scale Tracks

- Track Layout with
scaled Tracks
> Track Placement
- Tracks Up & Down

- Track Layout Examples
- Simple cyclic
- Simple eight

Rail Track System

Track Layout Technics with scaled Tracks
Basic Track Placement

The Placement of Track Elements
Demonstration with N scale tracksystem of geometry type A:

1) Straights, turnouts / switches
and level junctions / diamond crossings.
 ```//-------------------------------------------// object{SW_L(0)translate<0*L111,0,0> } object{ T_111 translate<1*L111,0,0> } object{ T_111 translate<2*L111,0,0> } object{ T_111 translate<2*L111,0,1*Track_Distance>} //-------------------------------------------//```
.....

2) Curves for turnouts / switches.
Turnouts / switches here have an angle of 15°
and a curve radius of R9 (~0.42887*N)
1st method:
Rotate a left curve track around 180° and move it to the end point.
 ```//-------------------------------------------// object{ T_L9_15 rotate<0,180,0> translate<2*L111,0,1*Track_Distance>} //-------------------------------------------//```
Note: Because of preview with track names we should avoid any mirroring of curves, switches etc., otherwise we will see
with mode 'Simulate_On = 3' only mirrored textes!!!
This means don't use 'scale<-1,1,1> or 'scale<1,1,-1>
A left curve track rotated by 180°

2nd method:
Using Rotate_Around_Trans macro needs:
'#include "transforms.inc"'
 ```//-------------------------------------------// #include "transforms.inc" object{ T_R9_15 Rotate_Around_Trans(<0,-15,0>,<0,0,R9>) translate<0*L111 ,0,0*Track_Distance> } //-------------------------------------------//```
Note: This method is often very important for correctly adding tracks behind curves and switches.!!!
Using 'Rotate_Around_Trans( ... )' macro
Method:
Rotate the left curve tracks of 45° around the point <0,0,R1>.
 ```//-------------------------------------------// object{ T_L1_45 } object{ T_L1_15 Rotate_Around_Trans(<0,-45,0>,<0,0,R1>) } object{ T_L1_15 Rotate_Around_Trans(<1,-45,0>,<0,0,R1>) } //-------------------------------------------//```
For curved tracks we often need to turn tracks by an angle around a center of rotation by using the macro 'Rotate_Around_Trans( RotationVector, Center_of_Rotation )' from the include file 'transforms.inc'.
We can replace the long command
'Rotate_Around_Trans(<0, 1*15,0>,<0,0,-R1>)'
by a shorter expression like 'RTyz( 1*15, -R1 )'
by declaring the following macro:
 ```#include "transforms.inc" #macro RTyz( Y_Angle, Z_Distance ) Rotate_Around_Trans (<0, Y_Angle,0>,<0,0, Z_Distance>) #end```
With this the above text is much shorter:
 ```//-------------------------------------------// object{ T_L1_45 } object{ T_L9_15 RTyz(-0*45, R1) } object{ T_L9_15 RTyz(-1*45, R1) } //-------------------------------------------//```
A left curve track rotated by -45° (couterclockwise!)

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 © Friedrich A. Lohmueller, 2011 www.f-lohmueller.de