###### Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracerby Friedrich A. Lohmüller     3D Animations with POV-Ray         Some basics and examples on animations.
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3D Animation Tutorial
Index of Content
0. Basic Knowledge
1. Basic Example
2. Example 2
3. Images to Animated Gif
4. From Images to Video
5. Basic Terms
6. Animation Commands
I. Cyclic Animations
1. Rotating Objects
1.2. Planets in Orbit
> 1.3. Clock Animation
2. Rotating Camera
2.1. Straight Moving Camera
3. Western Wheel
Problem
3.1. Rolling Wheels
4. Gears
4.1. Roller Chain
4.2. Bike Chain
5. Swinging Pendulum
5.2: Rock the Rocker
6. Spiral Pendulum
7. Coupling Rods
7.1. Connecting Rods
8. Psychedelic + Op-Art
9. Counters + Countdowns
10. Folding of a Cube
II. Non-linear Movements
1.0 Speed Up/Slow Down 1
1.1 Speed Up/Slow Down 2
2. Fall + Bounce
3. Acceleration by
physical Formulas
4. Speed Controll by
Spline Functions
III. Animation Paths
with Spline Curves
1. Spline Curves
2. Closed Splines
3. Animation Paths

# Animated Hands of a Clock   The hands of a clock are rotating with different speed. Cyclic animation of the hands of a clockface.

The Rotations of the Hands of a Clock:
While the hour hand turns 360 degrees just once in 12 hours the minute hand has to turn 12 times more = 360*12 degrees. And again the second hand has to turn another 60 times more = 360*12*60 degrees.
We declare a basic time variable Clock_Time where we can add test values between 0 and 1.
 ```#declare Clock_Time = clock+0.00; // rotation angles in degrees ------------- #declare Rotate_H = Clock_Time*360; #declare Rotate_Min = Clock_Time*360*12; #declare Rotate_Sec = Clock_Time*360*12*60```
Accordingly to test a specified time like
'2h 20min 30sec' we have to declare:
 ```#declare Clock_Time = clock + 2/12 + 20/(720) + 30/(43200);```
For a cyclic animation of a 12 hours turn of a clock we should take into account that 12 h = 720 min = 43200 seconds!
So for a small sized cyclic animation it's better not to use the seconds hand. To see the correct running of the seconds hand during a 12 hours turn we need an animation with 43200 frames!

The Jumping of the Minutes and the Seconds:
If we want the hands for minutes and seconds to jump only to full minutes and seconds (each 6 degrees) we should add:
 ```#declare Rotate_Min=int(Rotate_Min/6+0.01)*6; #declare Rotate_Sec=int(Rotate_Sec/6+0.01)*6;```

The Hands of a Clock:
To make the look of the clockface size independent we relate all element sizes to the basic clockface radius:
 ```#declare CR = 0.400; // Clockface radius // flatten cylinders we use here; #declare Flat = &l;1,1,0.025>; //----------------------------------- #declare Face_D = 0.001; // length of hands ------------- #declare Hd_H_Len = CR*0.60; #declare Hd_Min_Len = CR*0.85; #declare Hd_Sec_Len = CR*0.95; // radii of the hands --------- #declare Hd_H_D = CR*0.055; #declare Hd_Min_D = CR*0.035; #declare Hd_Sec_D = CR*0.020; // position z of hands -------- #declare Hd_H_Z = CR*0.05; #declare Hd_Min_Z = CR*0.04; #declare Hd_Sec_Z = CR*0.03; //-----------------------------------------```
For the hands and marks we use flat cylinders.
 ```// hour hand -------------------- cylinder{ <0,0,0>,<0,Hd_H_Len,0>,Hd_H_D scale Flat rotate <0,0,-Rotate_H> translate<0,0,-Hd_H_Z> texture{ Hands_Texture } } // minute hand ------------------ cylinder{ <0,0,0>,<0,Hd_Min_Len,0>,Hd_Min_D scale Flat rotate <0,0,-Rotate_Min> translate<0,0,-Hd_Min_Z> texture{ Hands_Texture } } // body center ---------------------------- cylinder{ <0,0,-Hd_H_Z>,<0,0,0>,Hd_H_D*1.5 texture{ Hands_Texture } } // face base ------------------------------ cylinder{ <0,0,0>,<0,0, Face_D>,CR texture{ Face_Texture } } //-----------------------------------------```
For more details of the clockface and the seconds hand and textures see the according scene file.

Clockface: the arms. Clockface: The marks for hours and minutes. Clockface complete.
Clockface animations.
##### Scene description for POV-Ray:"Clockface_00.ini" and "Clockface_00.pov"

A clock for a railway station
Some examples of use:

An alarm clock

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© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2008
http://www.f-lohmueller.de