Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracer by Friedrich A. Lohmüller
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    3D Animations with POV-Ray
        Some basics and examples on animations.
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  3D Animation Tutorial
   Index of Content
  0. Basic Knowledge
     1. Basic Example
     2. Example 2
     3. Images to Animated Gif
     4. From Images to Video
     5. Basic Terms
     6. Animation Commands  
  I. Cyclic Animations
     1. Rotating Objects
  > 1.2. Planets in Orbit
     1.3. Clock Animation
     2. Rotating Camera
     2.1. Straight Moving Camera
     3. Western Wheel
         Problem
     3.1. Rolling Wheels
     4. Gears
     4.1. Roller Chain
     4.2. Bike Chain
     5. Swinging Pendulum
     5.1. Newton's Cradle
     5.2: Rock the Rocker
     6. Spiral Pendulum
     7. Coupling Rods
     7.1. Connecting Rods
     8. Psychedelic + Op-Art
     9. Counters + Countdowns
    10. Folding of a Cube
  II. Non-linear Movements
     1.0 Speed Up/Slow Down 1
     1.1 Speed Up/Slow Down 2
     2. Fall + Bounce
     3. Acceleration by
          physical Formulas
     4. Speed Controll by
          Spline Functions
  III. Animation Paths
      with Spline Curves
     1. Spline Curves
     2. Closed Splines
     3. Animation Paths
                                                       

Planets in Orbit  

About objects, which rotate around other objects.
Cyclic animation with sun, earth and moon.
           

The Dimensions of the Planets:
#declare Moon_Orbit_Radius   =  4;
#declare Earth_Orbit_Radius  = 16;
//--------------------------------
#declare Moon_Radius   = 0.7;
#declare Earth_Radius  = 2.0;
#declare Sun_Radius    = 3;
//--------------------------------
Earth, Moon and Sun:
#declare Moon  =
sphere{ <0,0,0>,Moon_Radius
        texture{ ... }}
#declare Earth =
sphere{ <0,0,0>,Earth_Radius
        texture{ ... }}
#declare Sun   =
light_source{ <0,0,0>
              color rgb<0,0,0>
 looks_like{
 sphere{ <0,0,0>,Sun_Radius
         texture{ pigment{ ... }
                  finish{ ambient 1,
                          diffuse 0}
                } // end of texture
       } // end of sphere
   } // end of looks_like
 } // end of light_source
//--------------------------------
Planeten
Earth, Moon and Sun
Planeten
The moon casts shadows:
eclipse of the sun.
The angles of rotation
depend of the time:
#declare Time = clock + 0.00;
 // Time = 0 to 1 in one year !!!
#declare Earth_around_Sun_Rotation
 = 360*Time;   // 1 turn per year
#declare Moon_around_Earth_Rotation
 = 360*Time*12; //12 months!!!
#declare Earth_Rotation
 = 360*Time*360; // ~ 365 days !!!
//--------------------------------
Planeten
The earth casts shadows:
eclipse of the moon.
The motion of the moon around the earth,
and of Earth+Moon around the sun:
//-----------------------------------------------------------
union{ // Earth + Moon
  object{ Earth
          rotate <0,Earth_Rotation,0>
        } // end Earth
  object{ Moon
          translate <Moon_Orbit_Radius,0,0>
          rotate <0,Moon_around_Earth_Rotation,0>
        } // end Moon

 // then both (as a union) moveded
 // by Earth_Orbit_Radius away (in +x)

  translate <Earth_Orbit_Radius,0,0> 

 // and let them rotate around the sun
  rotate <0,Earth_around_Sun_Rotation,0>

} // end of union of "Earth + Moon"

object { Sun }
//-----------------------------------------------------------
animated earth,moon + sun
animated earth,moon + sun

animated earth,moon + sun

Simplified scenen file for POV-Ray:
"planet_00ani.ini" and
"planet_00ani.pov".

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© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2008
http://www.f-lohmueller.de