###### Descriptions and Examples for the POV-Ray Raytracerby Friedrich A. Lohmüller     3D Animations with POV-Ray         Some basics and examples on animations.
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3D Animation Tutorial
Index of Content
0. Basic Knowledge
1. Basic Example
2. Example 2
3. Images to Animated Gif
4. From Images to Video
5. Basic Terms
6. Animation Commands
I. Cyclic Animations
1. Rotating Objects
1.2. Planets in Orbit
1.3. Clock Animation
2. Rotating Camera
> 2.1 Straight Moving Camera
3. Western Wheel
Problem
3.1. Rolling Wheels
4. Gears
4.1. Roller Chain
4.2. Bike Chain
5. Swinging Pendulum
5.1. Newton's Cradle
5.2: Rock the Rocker
6. Spiral Pendulum
7. Coupling Rods
7.1. Connecting Rods
8. Psychedelic + Op-Art
9. Counters + Countdowns
10. Folding of a Cube
II. Non-linear Movements
1.0 Speed Up/Slow Down 1
1.1 Speed Up/Slow Down 2
2. Fall + Bounce
3. Acceleration by
physical Formulas
4. Speed Controll by
Spline Functions
III. Animation Paths
with Spline Curves
1. Spline Curves
2. Closed Splines
3. Animation Paths

 Straight Moving Camera  Cyclic animations with a straight moving camera.

Straight Moving Camera without Rapport
If we simply move the camera points of location and look_at,
it may look like show in the first image at the right side.

 ```// straight moving camera: ---------- #declare Move = 1.5 * clock; camera{ location < 4, 3, -6 +Move > right x*image_width/image_height look_at < 0, 0 , 0 +Move > angle 45 } //---------------------- end of camera```
Straight Moving Camera with Rapport
For a good smooth run of a cyclic animation, we have to
respect the rapport distance of a scene.
(See adjacent image: orange marking!)
Here we use the distance (from middle to middle) of the
stripes on the street. The center lines where defined by:
 ```union{ // center lines #local Nr = -500; // start #local EndNr = 500; // end #while (Nr < EndNr) box{ <-0.1, 0, 0>,< 0.1,0.0015, 1.50> texture{ pigment{ color rgb<1,1,1>} finish { phong 0.5} } // end of texture translate<0,0,Nr*3.00>} #local Nr = Nr + 1; // next Nr #end // --------------- end of loop } //---------------------- end of union```
So we need to chose as rapport distance of 3.00
or any integer multiple of this:
 ```// straight moving camera: ---------- #declare Move = 3.00 * clock; camera{ location < 4, 3, -6 +Move > right x*image_width/image_height look_at < 0, 0 , 0 +Move > angle 45 } //---------------------- end of camera```
Moving camera without rapport.
Annoying jerking!
Rapport distance for a cyclic animation. Moving camera with rapport.
Scene description and ini file
for POV-Ray 3.6 / 3.7:

"Moving_camera_1_.ini" and
"Moving_camera_1_.pov"

A variation - a little bit extended: Moving camera and trucks.
Scene description and ini file
for POV-Ray 3.6 / 3.7:

"Moving_camera_n_truck_.ini"
"Moving_camera_n_truck_.pov"
This scene needs the include file
Truck_12.inc from Trucks.

Camera with Rapport to Railtracks
Here with railtracks from my include file set
Rail Track System for POV-Ray "RT_System.zip"

With the railtrack there are defined the ties per meter:
 ```object{ RT_Track_Straight_00( 100*2/3, // track length 1.5 , // ties per meter ) //-----------------------// translate<-5.00,0.00, 0.00> } //-------------------------// ```
So we can use a length of 1/(ties per meter) = 2/3 (m)
or any integer multiple as a valid rapport distance for a
cyclic animation:

 ```#declare Move = 1/1.5 * clock; camera{ location < 4, 3, -6 +Move > right x*image_width/image_height look_at < 0, 0 , 0 +Move > angle 45 } //-------------------- end of camera```
Moving camera over railtacks.

Scene description and ini file
for POV-Ray 3.6 / 3.7:

"Moving_camera_2_.ini" and
"Moving_camera_2_.pov".
This scene needs the railtracks
from my include file set
Rail Track System for POV-Ray

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© Friedrich A. Lohmüller, 2013
http://www.f-lohmueller.de